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The Arrival: It was the 7th of August 1947. A bright, silver aircraft landed at the airport of Mauripore in Karachi. A huge excited crowd was watching it. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah came out of the plane. The crowd cried out with one voice “Pakistan Zindabad”. Every man ran ahead to welcome him, to get close to him, or at least to see him clearly.
The Journey to the city: He drove from the airport to the city. A great sea of people stretched all along the way. They cheered, shouted and shed tears of joy. Never-ending cries of Pakistan Zindabad filled the air. The people were beside themselves with joy and excitement. But the Quaid-e-Azam was calm, serious and even severe.
Rejoicing and Riots: Pakistan had come into existence. These were the firsts days in the life of the new country. So the people were rejoicing but violent Hindu-Muslim riots started in India at the same time. Millions of people became homeless. Thousands were being attacked and killed on the roads and railways as they tried to reach their new country. Needless to say, Jinnah was sad. Sometimes, however, the stern Quaid-e-Azam did smile at the great joy and excitement of his people.
Satisfaction to Jinnah: Mohammad Ali Jinnah was now tired and ill. But he was satisfied. He had won Pakistan. He had won a homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent of India.
The Muslims of India: Once the Muslims of the subcontinents had been a small defeated group. They had little to hope for. They had no country to call their own. They were in the empire of a foreign power, the British. And side by with the Muslims lived the Hindus. They were an absolute permanent majority. They were different from the Muslims in every respect. Once Jinnah said of the Hindus and the Muslims, “we are different creatures. There is nothing in life that joins us together”. So he put forward his Two nations Theory. This, at last, gave birth to the Idea of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Resolution: Choudhry Rahmat Ali was a Cambridge student. He fought for the Idea of Pakistan all his life. He invented the name of Pakistan in 1933. He writes, “Pakistan is both a Persian and an Urdu word”. It is made up from letters taken from all our Indian and Asian homelands. They are Punjab, Afghans (North-West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Iran, Sind (including Kutch and Kathiawar), Tukharistan, Afghanistan and Balouchistan.
The Meaning of Pakistan: Pakistan means the land of the Paks-the spiritually pure and clean.
1. Determination: Jinnah told the Muslims league at Lahore, “Think a hundred times before you take the decision, but once the decision is taken, stand by it as one man”. The Muslims did stand by the decision, so he declared. “No power on earth can prevent Pakistan.”
2. Field Work: Then the Second World War broke out. The British Government in India also declared war against Hitler, The Indian National Congress was against India’s declaration of war. They started the Quit India Movement. It was a mass civil disobedience plan, The British Government in India put the Congress leaders in prison. Jinnah worked hard during this period. He won over almost all Muslims. He traveled from place to place. He addressed huge meetings. He wrote to Muslims League workers in all parts of India. He started a newspaper. It was named “Dawn”. The Muslims had no paper of their own. So they welcomed it.
3. The Dissenters: However, all the Muslims were not with him. The Khakhsars accused him of being British agent. They threatened to kill him. He even faced an assassian. A khaksar, named Rafiq Sabir, tried to kill him with a knife. Fortunately, he failed in his evil designs.
4. Gandhi-Jinnah Talks: At last, Gandhi and Jinnah met for three weeks of talks. It was a last attempt to reach an agreement. Gandhi believed in the one nation theory. But Jinnah believed in the Two nations theory. Gandhi said that the two nations theory would ruin India. The two differed in their views completely. Naturally, therefore, the talks failed.
4. The near Civil War: The country was on the verge of a civil war. Muslims and Hindus were killing each other. Angry crowds were stealing and destroying property. The government was divided and powerless. The people no longer wanted the British officers. So they were eager to leave the country.
5. The Transfer of Power: At last, Britain decided to give full self government to India and leave the country by 15th August 1947. Lord Mountbattan was sent as the last viceroy. He carried orders to transfer power to the Indians. He decided to divide India into two States – Pakistan and India and hand over power to them. The provinces claimed by Muslims were told to decide whether they wished to join Pakistan or India. Congress and Muslims League both agreed to his plans.
6. The Creation of Pakistan: Sind, the North-West Frontier Province, Balouchistan, West Punjab, Sylhet and East Bengal all voted for Pakistan. This made a smaller state than the League had demanded. Yet most of the Indian Muslims now had a homeland of their own. They had becomes the greatest of Muslims States. They had become the fifth largest nation in the world. Overnight, they had become a great nation with great Ideals and a great faith.
Jinnah’s conception of Pakistan:
1. Political Freedom: Jinnah told the people, “you are free”. (political freedom)
2. Religious Freedom: You are free to go to your Temples, you are free to go to yourmosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste….”.(religious freedom)
3. Social Freedom: We are all citizens and equal citizens of one state (social freedom). In these words he had repeated the teaching of Prophet Mohammad that all men are equal in the eyes of God.
The creation of Pakistan was, indeed, a great victory for Jinnah.
The First Terrible Year:
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan. He led the people for about a year. It was a horrible period. Violent Hindu-Muslims riots took place after the partition of India. Again angry crowd murdered and stole and burned. Millions of people become homeless. They crossed the new borders for shelter. Half a million Muslims were killed or carried away as prisoners. These painful events shocked the ‘cold’ Jinnah.He was moved to tears. He begged for peace and friendship with his former enemies. Once he said, “some nations have killed millions of each other, and yet an enemy of today is a friend of tomorrow.”
The Tragedy of Kashmir:
The fate of Kashmir was a blow that shocked Jinnah deeply. The people of Kashmir are Muslims. They wanted to belong to Pakistan. But the Hindu Maharaja joined India. Jinnah was now tired and weak. He could not fight any more.
The Last Days of Jinnah: Jinnah was over seventy. He had struggled all his life. He was worn out. His illness was growing worse. Soon he was a dying man once again. He flew to Karachi. No crowds greeted him this time. His illness was a guarded secret. He died that night. He was buried in the heart of the city of his birth. He was also buried in the heart of the nation he had made.
Question and Answer
Ans: Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the first Governor General of Pakistan.
Ans: Lord Mountbatten was the Last Viceroy of India.
Ans: The ‘Pakistan Resolution’ was passed in Lahore in March 1940.
Ans: The Pakistan Resolution decided that an Independent Muslim state should be created in these parts of India where Muslims were in a majority such as East Bengal and the Northwest.
Ans: Sind, the North-West Frontier Province, Balouchistan, West Punjab, Sylhet and East Bengal voted for Pakistan.
Ans: Kashmir did not join Pakistan because the Hindu Maharaja joined Bharat.
Ans: The population of Pakistan was about 8 million when it became independent.
Ans: Pakistan is the fifth largest nation of the world in population; it is the biggest Muslim state.
Ans: The writer applies the word ‘Terrible’ to the first year of Pakistan’s history as an independent state because there was much violence in those days. Millions of people crossed the borders of the new state. Muslims left India, Hindus left Pakistan. Thus millions became homeless. Angry crowds murdered, stole and burned. Almost half of a millions Muslims were killed or carried away as prisoners.
Ans: The tomb of the Quaid-e-Azam is in the heart of the city of Karachi.
THE CHARACTER OF QUAID-E-AZAM
Introduction: Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the originator & first Governer General of Pakistan.
Appearance: He was a tall-dignified man and dressed himself faultlessly; a pure white sherwani was his favorite dress.
Nature: Usually calm, serious & severe, he rarely gave any sign of the feelings. In fact, the stern Jinnah was a very warm hearted man inside. And he was a man of very strong feelings, too. He hated violence and cruelty. Moved to tears by the sight of homeless refugees, the “Cold” Jinnah begged for friendship and peace with the former enemies, some nations have killed millions of each other, and yet an enemy of today is a friend of tomorrow”. Inspite of his fast failing health, he worked hard day and night, “I have work to do” he would always say when his doctors advised him to rest. His firm stand by his decisions was his most outstanding quality, “Think a hundred times before you take the decision but once the decision is taken, stand by it as one man,” he advised the league at Lahore, accordingly, Needless to say, it was the force of his determination & leadership that turned the two Nations theory into a reality and the Independent Muslims state of Pakistan came into existence.
A Muslim first and last, he had firm faith in the teachings of the Prophet that all men are equal in the eyes of God.
His Conception of Pakistan:
His religious beliefs found strong expression in the political ideas. More than anything else, he believed in absolute freedom – political, religious and social.
These ideas from the basis of his conception of Pakistan which is best stated in his own words, “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste… we are all citizens and equal citizens of one state.”
Conclusion: No wonder, therefore that the Muslims of Pakistan call him “the father of the Nations”. To this day he is buried in the heart of the Nation, he had made.
Notes written by al-saudia Expert English Language Home Tutor in Karachi.