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    Free Online Notes XI English Karachi Board
    United Nations

    Online Tuition Pakistan,  Complete and comprehensive notes of XI English written by experienced english professors, Pakistan Online Tuition, Al-Saudia Virtual Academy, Online Tuition Tutor provider for all subject. Free online englihs notes XI Karachi Board, United Nations, General Assembly, UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO, Kashmir Problem, Israel-Palestine Issue,  Important questions, Reference to context, We have specialized online professors for English, English Language, English literature and Linguistics. Online English Tutor Pakistan, Pakistani English Tutors, Online English Tuition Pakistan.
     
    United Nation

     
    United Nations

    The United Nations: 

    The Second World War: The Second World War began in 1939 and ended in the spring of 1945.
    The Evil Consequence of War: The war brought worldwide suffering. It brought death, destruction, disease and hunger to millions. It did not spare even women and children.
    The Conscience of man- a source of Inspiration: All this misery of man awakened his conscience. He grew a strong hatred for war. He prayed for peace, good will and brotherhood on earth. He dreamed of a better and happier world. These thoughts inspired the foundation of the United Nations Organization.
    The Birth of the U. N. O.: Needless to say, these dreams could come true only if the people of the world united. And they were already coming closer and closer in some ways. Science was helping this. It invented better and swifter means of communication and transport. The telephone, telegraph and wireless exchange news and information rapidly. Nowadays Net provides even faster and more sophisticated mean of communication. The aeroplanes linked even the renwtest countries. Conditions of life in one country soon affected another. The world had become one in respect of time and space. So all its people tried to make it one in every respect. They organized the United Nations Organization (The U.N.O.) – or the United Nations (the U.N.) for short – in April 1945. The U.N.O. meets in New York in the United States of America.
    The Aims of the U.N.O. The aim of the U.N.O. is to prevent war and establish permanent peace. It talks ever-urgent problems or war and peace. It tries to solve them as far as possible. It studies living conditions in all parts of the world. It fights against political and social injustice. It fights against aggression, poverty, hunger, disease and ignorance. It is a spearhead in the hands of civilization against all kinds of evils.
    Prevention of War & Peace efforts:
    1. The hard path of the Peacemaker: prevention of war is by no means an easy job. It is the game of powerful politicians. The political atmosphere of the enemy countries is charged with hatred and bitterness. The intentions of a peacemaker are doubted. Wiser counsels do hardly ever prevail. So peace efforts, more often then not, most with failure. The path of the peacemaker is indeed hard. The U.N.O. his succeeded in bringing peace only in a few cases. For the most part, its results have been unsatisfactory.
    2. Fighting social evils: But there is no cause for despair. One part of U.N.O. work promises hope. This is the work of fighting social evils. Living conditions of quite a number of countries are far from satisfactory. This breads discontent. Discontent lasting for a long time starts little quarrels between nations. Any of these may lend to a fresh world war in the long run, so the U.N.O. tries to end all causes of discontent. It studies living conditions of all countries and fight their social evils, such as poverty, ignorance, diseases, social and political injustice. Thus it strikes at the root of the causes of war and prevents its outbreak.
    International Work:
    Men and women from different countries, races and religious first plan and then work practically for the welfare of backward people who are quite strangers to them. Thus so many people come very close together. They know and understand one and another better. It goes without saying that welfare workers would never like to go to war with people whom they help.
    An Example of International work: The far most has a number of countries – Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam, Canals rivers and lakes are their natural highways. Millions of people live on the great rivers. There are millions of boats. They are of ancient types. They are plenty cheap labour. So their standard of living is poor. This hinders progress. They United Nations organized the Inland Water Transport Tour of Asian. Experts to improve the inland water transport of these countries. The members of the tour first visited the countries of the Far East to know and understand the conditions of life on their quiet inland waterways. Then they visited Europe and America. There they saw the rivers, boats and shipyards of the west and studied its water transport operation. They also discussed water transport problems with western experts. Thus they gained immense experience. They used it his background of experience in solving the transport problems of their own countries in the Far East.
    Birth of the UNO an event in world History:
    Patrician should mean love for one’s own country as well as the U.N.O. 24th October is celebrated as U.N. Day every year. Each year we pledge to work for world peace and important event in the world history.
    The Structure of the U.N.O.
    I. The U.N.O.
    1. The General Assembly:
    a. Description: is the Central and principal organ of the U.N.O.
    b. Structure:
    (i) Members:
    1. Every member nation is represented in the Assembly.
    2. Each member nation can send five representatives.
    3. But only one of them has the right to vote. Each member nation can cast only a single vote.
    (ii) President:
    Each sitting elects its own president.
    (iii) Committees:
    1. It has six main conditions for its usual work.
    2. It appoints separate of committees for special purposes.
    3. It appoints a special committee for its regular sittings as well.
    c. Functions: It considers questions related to peace and to the advancement of happiness and justice in the world.
    2. The Security Council:
    a. Description: Is the most active organ of the U.N.O.
    b. Structure:
    i. It is made up of eleven members.
    ii. Five are permanent members- The U.S.S.R., The U.S.A., The U.K., France and China. Each of these has a vote.
    iii. The other six are temporary members. They are selected for two-year terms, three each year, the General Assembly.
    c. Functions:
    i) It discusses matters of great importance and urgent nature.
    ii) But it should have the support of each permanent member.
    iii) If one of them uses its vote to any matter, it is dropped for the time being, at least.

    3. The Secretary General:
    a. Description: is the chief officer of the U.N.O.
    b. Structure:
    1. His terms of office are five years. It is extended till the election of his successor, if the need arise.
    2. He is appointed by the General Assembly with the approval of the Security Council.
    c. Functions:
    1. He has important political responsibilities.
    2. He submits a report on the work of the organization each year.
    4. The Secretariat:
    a. Description:
    Consists of all the officers of the U.N.O.
    b. Structure:
    1. These officers are under the Secretary General.
    2. The Headquarters of the Secretariat is in New York. It is directly under the Secretary General. It has a staff of about 3500 people.
    3. The Secretariat has its special branches at various other centers. These have hundredth of employees.
    4. The staff of the secretariat is made up of people from different nations. People from so many different nations work in no other organization of the world. The employees do not represent their country. Their outlook is international in nature and character.
    d. Functions:
    i. The staff has to prepare the matter for various meetings.
    ii. They have to manage the meetings.
    iii. They have to maintain a record of all that is said and done there.
    iv. They have to prepare daily reports for the press and the
    v. Translators sit in soundproof cabins, listen to speeches and translate them at the same time. Thus each member can listen to the speeches in his own language through headphones.
    vi. Various urgent problems of the day are studied in a scientific way.
    II Ancillary Organizations:
    Description: Are special bodies of the U.N.O.
    Structure:
    1. Some of them ladies are part of the U.N.
    2. Some are independent.
    Functions: All of them are closely associated with the work of the U.N.
    1. The International Bank:
    Description: is a special body of the U.N.O. it gives financial help to the people of the world.
    Structure:
    Functions: It lends money on loan to member nations for work of public importance and utility such as electric power plants, roads, railways, canals and flood control.
    Examples: In 1951, the Bank gave a loan to a Mexican village for an electric plant. This had a wonderful effect. The population in co cased three fold. Industrial users of electricity increased from 3 to 33. The town started a radio station, a daily newspaper, and a night school. The number of school going children increased seven times.
    2. The U.N. Children Funds: (UNICEF)
    Description: A special body of the U.N.O. Is the friend of children all over the world.
    Function: it specializes in the relief of children.
    3. The World Health Organization (WHO):
    Description: Is a special body of the U.N.O. It cares for International Health.
    Date: It was started in 1946, But practical shape on 7th April in new celebrated as World Health Day.
    Functions:
    1. It advises member nations on public health and disease control.
    2. It makes war on many wide spread diseases.
    Examples:
    1. It wiped out malaria from the Terai district of Utar Pardash. The farmers raised their produces by fifty percent.
    2. It made war on yaws in Indonesia in 1950. It sent medical experts to train Indonesian workers. UNICEF supplied medicines and transport. The home country gave workers and buildings etc. Millions of patients were examined and cured; in a few years almost the whole country will be free from yaws.
    YAWS: is a disease of hot wet climate. Few die of it, but many became helpless forever.
    4. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO):
    Description: is a special body of the U.N.O. Its problems are hunger.
    Date: It was started in 1943.
    Functions:
    1. It sends experts to countries to advise them how to grow more food and other crops, how to control plant and animal diseases, how to protect food storage, and how to increase the yield of farms, forests and fisheries.
    2. It publishes useful literature on agriculture, forests and fishing.
    5. The United Nations Education Science and Culture Organization. (UNESCO):
    Description: it is a special organization of the U.N. for advancing education, science and culture.
    Structure:
    1. Most of the human race is illiterate. Less than half of the world’s children go to school. So progress cannot go far along modern lines.
    2. People do not learn to read unless they first find some practical improvement in their way of life; for only after that do they realized the benefit of learning to read.
    Functions:
    1. It teaches member nations how to spread education far and wide in their countries.
    2. It supplies certain kinds of training and aids for the purpose.
    3. It gives information about new ways of teaching by books, pictures, films, or radio as these are worked out through fresh experience.
    4. All this develops necessary understanding and habits of mind, which are so useful for life in the modern world.
    5. Much efforts advance human welfare, international understanding and world peace.
    Notes written by al-saudia Expert English Language Home Tutor in Karachi.
    United Nations - XI English Notes 
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