Introduction to Biochemistry

Introduction to Biochemistry

Introduction to Biochemistry, We provide well educated, qualified male female home biochemistry tutor in karachi.
Al-Saudia Virtual Academy Pakistan (ASVAP) also conducted online tutoring classes for biochemistry.
Following topics will be covered during tutoring classes:

a) Introduction to Biochemistry:

Biochemistry as chemical and biological science, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, Distribution of Biomolecules in cells.

b) Matrix of Life: Weak Interactions in an Aqueous Environment:

Introduction to the nature of non covalent interactions. The role of water in biological process. Ionic Equilibria: pH, Buffer, Buffer, Buffering of Blood, Requirements of Biological buffers, Acids and Bases, The Henderson Hasselbalch Equation.

c) Molecular Architecture of Living Matter:

The Bio-Molecules:

Amino Acids:

  • Nomenclature, Classification and Characteristics.
  • Acid-Base properties, Optical Activity and Chirality.
  • Peptide Bonds

Structure and function of proteins:

  • Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structures of Protein.
  • Classification of Proteins on Functional basis, Compositional basis adn difference in three dimensional structure.
  • Function of proteins with special reference to Haemoglobin and myoglobin.

Nucleic Acids:

  • Purine and Pyrimidine Bases
  • Nucleosides and Nucleotides
  • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary structures of Nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates and their Derivatives:

  • Classification, Configuration and Conformation.
  • Monosaccharides and related compounds
  • Glycosidic Bonds
  • Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
  • Sugar Derivatives.
  • Glycoproteins.


  1. Isolation of Glycogen from liver.
  2. Acid hydrolysis of Glycogen.
  3. Paper Chromatography of sugars
  4. Isolation of Casein from milk
  5. Preparation of Buffers.
  6. Effect of pH on conformation of bovine serum albumin.

Introductory Biochemistry – II

a. Lipids and Membranes:
Liquid Classification, Fatty acid, Triacylglycerols, Phosphoglycerides, Sphingolipids, Steriods, Protaglandins, Biological Membrane, Membrane Lipids and Proteins, Membrane Models, Lipoproteins.

b. Enzymes:

Basic concepts, Historical Background, Classification and Nomenclature, Enzyme Cofactors, Specificity, Enzymes Substrate Complex, Active sites, Chemical Kinetics, Free and Activation Energy, Effects of Catalysis, Factors affecting enzyme acitivity, Michaelis-Menten, Lineweaver-Bruk, Eadie-Hofstee and Woolfs Plots, Enzymes Inhibition, Allosteric Enzymes, Mechanism of Enzyme Action.

c. Nutritional Biochemistry:

Macro and Micronutrients, Nitrogen Balance, Nutritionally Essential Amino and Fatty acids, Balanced Diet, Vitamins, Structure and functions of Water soluble Vitamins, Structure and functions of Lipid Soluble Vitamins.

d. Body Fluids:

Biochemical functions and composition of Blodd, Lymph, Cerebrospinal fluid and Urine, Urine formation.

Practical II

1. Determination of Saponification number.
2. Derermination of Acid value.
3. Effect of temperature on Catalase activity.
4. Effect of Substrate concentration on Catalase activity.
5. The estimation of Ascorbic Acid.
6. The estimation of Serum Calcium.
7. The estimation of abnormal consitiuents of Urine.

Intermediary Metabolism-I

a. Metabolism: basic concepts and design:

Anabolic, catabolic and Amphibolic Pathways, Energy cycle in cells, Metabolic Turnover, Multienzyme system, Universal carriers, Regulationof Metabolism, Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosophorylation,Digestion, Absorption and Transport of Nutrients.

b. Carbohydrate Metabolism:

Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis,
Glycogen Metabolism, Bioenergetics and Regulation.

c. Lipid Metabolism:

Fatty acid metabolism, Metabolism of Membrane lipids and steroids, Bioenergetics
and Regulation.

d. Amino Acids Metabolism:

Amino acid degradation (Glycine, Serine, Phenyl alanine and Tyrosine).
Urea cycle, Inborn errors of Metabolism, Biosynthesis of Amino acids (Glycine, Serine, Phenyl alanine and Tyrosine), biosynthesis of Haem.

Practical III

1. Spectrophotometry
a. Colorimetery
b. The Beer-Lambert Law
c. Demonstration fo Beer’s Law.
d. Measurement of Extinciton coefficient
e. UV adn visible spectrophotometery
f. Absorption spectra
2. The estimation of blood glucose
3. The estimation of blood cholesterol.
4. Urea clearance test
5. Creatinine clearance test.

Intermediary Metabolism-II

a. Storage, Transmission and Expression of Genetic Information:

Biosynthesis and breakdown of Nucleotides including salvage pathways, disorders of nucleotide synthesis. DNA and Replication, (Models of replication, Messelson and Stahi experiment, Enzymes of replication, Prokaryotic and eucaryotic replication, Initiation, Elongation and Termination ofreplication, DNA repair).
RNA and its types, Transcription, (enzymes of transcription, initiation, elongation and termination of transcription, post transcriptional modifications).
The genetic code, (discovery of genetic code, characteristics of genetic code, degeneracy, Wobble hypothesis, frame shifting, overlapping, codon, anticodon and their interaction).
Protein synthesis, (Activation, RNA and its aminoacylation, chain initiation, chain elognation, chain termination, protein synthesis inhibators, post translational modifications, protein degradation).

b. Biochemical Aspects of Hormone Action:

Organisation of Mammalian Endocrine System, General mechanism of action and regulation. Thyroxine, Insulin, Epinephrine and glucocorticoids. Regulation of metabolic pathways.

Practical IV.

1. Isolation of DNA
2. Isolation of RNA
3. The determination of serum proteins
4. The estimation of serum uric acids
5. Oral glucose tolerance test.