Monthly Archives: June 2023

Introduction to Biochemistry

Introduction to Biochemistry

Introduction to Biochemistry, We provide well educated, qualified male female home biochemistry tutor in karachi.
Al-Saudia Virtual Academy Pakistan (ASVAP) also conducted online tutoring classes for biochemistry.
Following topics will be covered during tutoring classes:

a) Introduction to Biochemistry:

Biochemistry as chemical and biological science, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, Distribution of Biomolecules in cells.

b) Matrix of Life: Weak Interactions in an Aqueous Environment:

Introduction to the nature of non covalent interactions. The role of water in biological process. Ionic Equilibria: pH, Buffer, Buffer, Buffering of Blood, Requirements of Biological buffers, Acids and Bases, The Henderson Hasselbalch Equation.

c) Molecular Architecture of Living Matter:

The Bio-Molecules:

Amino Acids:

  • Nomenclature, Classification and Characteristics.
  • Acid-Base properties, Optical Activity and Chirality.
  • Peptide Bonds

Structure and function of proteins:

  • Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structures of Protein.
  • Classification of Proteins on Functional basis, Compositional basis adn difference in three dimensional structure.
  • Function of proteins with special reference to Haemoglobin and myoglobin.

Nucleic Acids:

  • Purine and Pyrimidine Bases
  • Nucleosides and Nucleotides
  • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary structures of Nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates and their Derivatives:

  • Classification, Configuration and Conformation.
  • Monosaccharides and related compounds
  • Glycosidic Bonds
  • Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
  • Sugar Derivatives.
  • Glycoproteins.


  1. Isolation of Glycogen from liver.
  2. Acid hydrolysis of Glycogen.
  3. Paper Chromatography of sugars
  4. Isolation of Casein from milk
  5. Preparation of Buffers.
  6. Effect of pH on conformation of bovine serum albumin.

Introductory Biochemistry – II

a. Lipids and Membranes:
Liquid Classification, Fatty acid, Triacylglycerols, Phosphoglycerides, Sphingolipids, Steriods, Protaglandins, Biological Membrane, Membrane Lipids and Proteins, Membrane Models, Lipoproteins.

b. Enzymes:

Basic concepts, Historical Background, Classification and Nomenclature, Enzyme Cofactors, Specificity, Enzymes Substrate Complex, Active sites, Chemical Kinetics, Free and Activation Energy, Effects of Catalysis, Factors affecting enzyme acitivity, Michaelis-Menten, Lineweaver-Bruk, Eadie-Hofstee and Woolfs Plots, Enzymes Inhibition, Allosteric Enzymes, Mechanism of Enzyme Action.

c. Nutritional Biochemistry:

Macro and Micronutrients, Nitrogen Balance, Nutritionally Essential Amino and Fatty acids, Balanced Diet, Vitamins, Structure and functions of Water soluble Vitamins, Structure and functions of Lipid Soluble Vitamins.

d. Body Fluids:

Biochemical functions and composition of Blodd, Lymph, Cerebrospinal fluid and Urine, Urine formation.

Practical II

1. Determination of Saponification number.
2. Derermination of Acid value.
3. Effect of temperature on Catalase activity.
4. Effect of Substrate concentration on Catalase activity.
5. The estimation of Ascorbic Acid.
6. The estimation of Serum Calcium.
7. The estimation of abnormal consitiuents of Urine.

Intermediary Metabolism-I

a. Metabolism: basic concepts and design:

Anabolic, catabolic and Amphibolic Pathways, Energy cycle in cells, Metabolic Turnover, Multienzyme system, Universal carriers, Regulationof Metabolism, Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosophorylation,Digestion, Absorption and Transport of Nutrients.

b. Carbohydrate Metabolism:

Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis,
Glycogen Metabolism, Bioenergetics and Regulation.

c. Lipid Metabolism:

Fatty acid metabolism, Metabolism of Membrane lipids and steroids, Bioenergetics
and Regulation.

d. Amino Acids Metabolism:

Amino acid degradation (Glycine, Serine, Phenyl alanine and Tyrosine).
Urea cycle, Inborn errors of Metabolism, Biosynthesis of Amino acids (Glycine, Serine, Phenyl alanine and Tyrosine), biosynthesis of Haem.

Practical III

1. Spectrophotometry
a. Colorimetery
b. The Beer-Lambert Law
c. Demonstration fo Beer’s Law.
d. Measurement of Extinciton coefficient
e. UV adn visible spectrophotometery
f. Absorption spectra
2. The estimation of blood glucose
3. The estimation of blood cholesterol.
4. Urea clearance test
5. Creatinine clearance test.

Intermediary Metabolism-II

a. Storage, Transmission and Expression of Genetic Information:

Biosynthesis and breakdown of Nucleotides including salvage pathways, disorders of nucleotide synthesis. DNA and Replication, (Models of replication, Messelson and Stahi experiment, Enzymes of replication, Prokaryotic and eucaryotic replication, Initiation, Elongation and Termination ofreplication, DNA repair).
RNA and its types, Transcription, (enzymes of transcription, initiation, elongation and termination of transcription, post transcriptional modifications).
The genetic code, (discovery of genetic code, characteristics of genetic code, degeneracy, Wobble hypothesis, frame shifting, overlapping, codon, anticodon and their interaction).
Protein synthesis, (Activation, RNA and its aminoacylation, chain initiation, chain elognation, chain termination, protein synthesis inhibators, post translational modifications, protein degradation).

b. Biochemical Aspects of Hormone Action:

Organisation of Mammalian Endocrine System, General mechanism of action and regulation. Thyroxine, Insulin, Epinephrine and glucocorticoids. Regulation of metabolic pathways.

Practical IV.

1. Isolation of DNA
2. Isolation of RNA
3. The determination of serum proteins
4. The estimation of serum uric acids
5. Oral glucose tolerance test.





United Nations

The United Nations

United Nations Organization, (UNO), The aim of the U.N.O. is to prevent war and establish permanent peace. It talks ever-urgent problems or war and peace.

The Second World War:

War began in 1939 and ended in the spring of 1945.

The Evil Consequence of War:

War brought worldwide suffering. It brought death, destruction, disease and hunger to millions. It did not spare even women and children.

Conscience of man- a source of Inspiration:

All this misery of man awakened his conscience. He grew a strong hatred for war, prayed for peace, good will and brotherhood on earth.

He dreamed of a better and happier world. These thoughts inspired the foundation of the United Nation Organization.

The Birth of the United Nations  (U.N.O.)

Needless to say, these dreams could come true only if the people of the world united. And they were already coming closer and closer in some ways. Science was helping this.

It invented better and swifter means of communication and transport. The telephone, telegraph and wireless exchange news and information rapidly.

Nowadays Net provides even faster and more sophisticated mean of communication. The aeroplanes linked even the renwtest countries. Conditions of life in one country soon affected another.

The world had become one in respect of time and space. So all its people tried to make it one in every respect.

They organized the United Nations Organization (The U.N.O.) – or the United Nations (the U.N.) for short – in April 1945. The U.N.O. meets in New York in the United States of America.

The Aims of the U.N.O.

The aim of the U.N.O. is to prevent war and establish permanent peace. It talks ever-urgent problems or war and peace, tries to solve them as far as possible.

Studies living conditions in all parts of the world. It fights against political and social injustice.

Fights against aggression, poverty, hunger, disease and ignorance. It is a spearhead in the hands of civilization against all kinds of evils.

Prevention of War & Peace efforts:

1.The hard path of the Peacemaker:

Prevention of war is by no means an easy job. It is the game of powerful politicians.

The political atmosphere of the enemy countries is charged with hatred and bitterness.

Also the intentions of a peacemaker are doubted. Wiser counsels do hardly ever prevail.

So peace efforts, more often then not, most with failure. The path of the peacemaker is indeed hard.

The U.N.O. his succeeded in bringing peace only in a few cases. For the most part, its results have been unsatisfactory.

2.Fighting social evils:

But there is no cause for despair. One part of U.N.O. work promises hope. This is the work of fighting social evils. Living conditions of quite a number of countries are far from satisfactory.

This breads discontent. Discontent lasting for a long time starts little quarrels between nations. Any of these may lend to a fresh world war in the long run, so the U.N.O. tries to end all causes of discontent.

It studies living conditions of all countries and fight their social evils, such as poverty, ignorance, diseases, social and political injustice.

Thus it strikes at the root of the causes of war and prevents its outbreak.

International Work: 

Men and women from different countries, races and religious first plan and then work practically for the welfare of backward people who are quite strangers to them.

Thus so many people come very close together. They know and understand one and another better.

It goes without saying that welfare workers would never like to go to war with people whom they help.

An Example of International work: The far most has a number of countries – Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam, Canals rivers and lakes are their natural highways.

Millions of people live on the great rivers. There are millions of boats. They are of ancient types.

They are plenty cheap labour. So their standard of living is poor. This hinders progress. They United Nations organized the Inland Water Transport Tour of Asian.

Experts to improve the inland water transport of these countries. The members of the tour first visited the countries of the Far East to know and understand the conditions of life on their quiet inland waterways.

Then they visited Europe and America. There they saw the rivers, boats and shipyards of the west and studied its water transport operation.

They also discussed water transport problems with western experts. Thus they gained immense experience.  Use background of experience in solving the transport problems of their own countries in the Far East.

Birth of the UNO an event in world History:

Patrician should mean love for one’s own country as well as the U.N.O. 24th October is celebrated as U.N. Day every year.

Each year we pledge to work for world peace and important event in the world history.

The Structure of the U.N.O.

  1. I. The U.N.O.
  2. The General Assembly:
  3. Description: is the Central and principal organ of the U.N.O.
  4. Structure:


1.Every member nation is represented in the Assembly.

2.Each member nation can send five representatives.

3.But only one of them has the right to vote. Each member nation can cast only a single vote.


Each sitting elects its own president.

(iii) Committees:

  1. It has six main conditions for its usual work.

2. Appoints separate of committees for special purposes.

3.It appoints a special committee for its regular sittings as well.

  1. Functions: It considers questions related to peace and to the advancement of happiness and justice in the world.
  2. The Security Council:
  3. Description: Is the most active organ of the U.N.O.
  4. Structure:

i.It is made up of eleven members.

ii.Five are permanent members- , The U.S.A., Russia, The U.K., France and China, Each of these has a vote.

iii.The other six are temporary members. They are selected for two-year terms, three each year, the General Assembly.

  1. Functions:

i)It discusses matters of great importance and urgent nature.

ii)But it should have the support of each permanent member.

iii)If one of them uses its vote to any matter, it is dropped for the time being, at least.

  1. The Secretary General:

a.Description: is the chief officer of the U.N.O.


1.His terms of office are five years. It is extended till the election of his successor, if the need arise.

2.He is appointed by the General Assembly with the approval of the Security Council.


1.He has important political responsibilities.

2.To submits a report on the work of the organization each year.

  1. The Secretariat:


Consists of all the officers of the U.N.O.


1.These officers are under the Secretary General.

2.The Headquarters of the Secretariat is in New York. It is directly under the Secretary General. It has a staff of about 3500 people.

3. Secretariat has its special branches at various other centers. These have hundredth of employees.

4.The staff of the secretariat is made up of people from different nations.

People from so many different nations work in no other organization of the world.

The employees do not represent their country. Their outlook is international in nature and character.


i.The staff has to prepare the matter for various meetings.

ii.They have to manage the meetings.

iii.Have to maintain a record of all that is said and done there.

iv.They have to prepare daily reports for the press and the

v.Translators sit in soundproof cabins, listen to speeches and translate them at the same time.

Thus each member can listen to the speeches in his own language through headphones.

vi.Various urgent problems of the day are studied in a scientific way.

II Ancillary Organizations:

Description: Are special bodies of the U.N.O.


1.Some of them ladies are part of the U.N.

2.Some are independent.


All of them are closely associated with the work of the U.N.

  1. The International Bank:

Description: is a special body of the U.N.O. it gives financial help to the people of the world.



It lends money on loan to member nations for work of public importance and utility such as electric power plants, roads, railways, canals and flood control.


In 1951, the Bank gave a loan to a Mexican village for an electric plant. This had a wonderful effect. The population in co cased three fold. Industrial users of electricity increased from 3 to 33.

The town started a radio station, a daily newspaper, and a night school. The number of school going children increased seven times.

  1. The U.N. Children Funds: (UNICEF)

Description: A special body of the U.N.O.Is the friend of children all over the world.

Function: it specializes in the relief of children.

  1. The World Health Organization (WHO):

Description: Is a special body of the U.N.O. It cares for International Health.

Date: It was started in 1946, But practical shape on 7th April in new celebrated as World Health Day.


1.It advises member nations on public health and disease control.

2.Also it makes war on many wide spread diseases.


1.It wiped out malaria from the Terai district of Utar Pardash.

The farmers raised their produces by fifty percent.

2.Made war on yaws in Indonesia in 1950. It sent medical experts to train Indonesian workers. UNICEF supplied medicines and transport.

The home country gave workers and buildings etc. Millions of patients were examined and cured; in a few years almost the whole country will be free from yaws.

YAWS: is a disease of hot wet climate. Few die of it, but many became helpless forever.

  1. United Nations: The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO):

Description: is a special body of the U.N.O.Its problems are hunger.

Date: It was started in 1943.


1.Sends experts to countries to advise them how to grow more food and other crops, how to control plant and animal diseases, how to protect food storage, and how to increase the yield of farms, forests and fisheries.

2.Publishes useful literature on agriculture, forests and fishing.

  1. The United Nations Education Science and Culture Organization. (UNESCO):


It is a special organization of the U.N. for advancing education, science and culture.

Structure: (United Nations)

1.Most of the human race is illiterate. Less than half of the world’s children go to school. So progress cannot go far along modern lines.

2.People do not learn to read unless they first find some practical improvement in their way of life; for only after that do they realized the benefit of learning to read.


1.It teaches member nations how to spread education far and wide in their countries.

2.Supplies certain kinds of training and aids for the purpose.

3.It gives information about new ways of teaching by books, pictures, films, or radio as these are worked out through fresh experience.

4.All this develops necessary understanding and habits of mind, which are so useful for life in the modern world.

5.Much efforts advance human welfare, international understanding and world peace. (united nations)

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The Wolves Of Cernogratz




The wolves of cernogratz a weird yet delightful tale, is an adaptation from the story of the same name by H. H. Munro Alias Saki.

The Wolves of Cernogratz

Baron & Baroness: 

Baron Gruebel was a rich nobleman. He was proud & hot headed.

His wife, the baroness Gruebel, was a plump, well fed & much-to-well dressed lady, and she was extremely haughtily and quick-tempered.

Together, the two were the most conceited and vainglorious couple that ever lived.


 Conrad, brother of Baroness Gruebel, was a prosperous Hamburg merchant. He had a stronger imagination than the rest of the family.

Franklin Schmidt: I. A. Amelia Von Cernogratz): 

Franklin Schmidt, the gray old Governess of Baron and Baroness Gruebel, had known better times in the past but when she fell evil days, she had to go out and give lessons for a living, sometimes after, she became governess in the Gruebel family.

She took the name of Schmidt to hide her identity for; in fact, she was Amelia Von Cernogratz, a scion of the great Cernogratz family.

The Great Cernogratz Family: 

The Cernogratz family, (the wolves of cernogratz)  was a rich and powerful family of great noblemen.

But with the passage of time they fell victims to the vicissitudes of life.

Their riches took wings and their power waved. At last, they had to sell their residence, the famous Castle of Cernogratz.

The Castle of Cernogratz: 

The castle of cernogratz, (the wolves of cernogratz) a huge palatial structure, was the pride of antiquity.

It stood at a lonely spot far away from the village and its farms and fields.

At some distance was a thick forest, a bounding in wolves and other wild beasts.

Amelia returns to the Old Family Home: 

Strangely enough, it was the Gruebel who purchase the castle.

So when they moved into it, Amelia, naturally moved with them to live once again in the old home of her family.

The wrong Cernogratz legend: 

One day Conrad asked her sister if there were any legends attaching to the castle.

The lady said that, as usual, a legend did run about the castle in the neighbourhood. While it lent dignity to the place, it did not cost anything, as it was always so easy to invent one.

The story was that when anyone died in the castle, all the dogs in the village and the wild beasts in the forest howled all night long which certainly would not be pleasant to listen to.

But the Hamburg merchant said it would be weird and romantic.

The Baroness, however, did not believe in it. The legend for at the time of her mother-in-law’s death no howling whatsoever was heard.

The Right Cernogratz legend:

 Though she never spoke unless spoken to, Amelia, looking straight in front of her and seeming to address no one in particular, remark sharply but nervously that the story was not like that.

It was only when one of the Cernogratz family died in the castle that wolves came from far and near in their scores, glided in the shadows and howled in chorus at the edge of the forest just before the hour of death.

Then the dogs of the castle and village & all the farms around would bark in fear and anger at the wolf chorus. AS the soul of the dying one left its body a tree would crash in the park.

But for a stranger, of course, no wolf would howl and no tree would fall.

The Angry Gruebels: 

There was a note of defiance, almost of contempt, in the voice of the old governess as she said the last words.

She declared that she was a cernogratz herself and knew the family history well. The Gruebels, however, did not believe her.

They thought that she was pretending to be an important person only to appeal to their sympathies for she would soon be past work.

The Baroness shrugged her plump shoulders and stared at her angrily.

She decided to give her notice soon after the New Year festivities. Till then, she would be too busy to manage without her.

Amalie Breaks Down: 

But she had to manage without her all the same for the old fell seriously ill after Christmas and stayed in her room.

Her sudden break down was extremely annoying as she would be useful in so many ways to her mistress when she had the house full.

The Death Music: (The Howl of the wolves)

On one of the last evenings of the year, Wappi, the small wooly lapdog of the Gruebels suddenly sprang down from its cushion and crawled shivering under the sofa.

The same moment an outburst of angry barking came from the dogs in and around the castle yard. And the guests sitting by the fire, listened intently, a long drawn whining howl of hundreds of wolves was heard sweeping across the snow from the forest to the foot of the castle walls.

The Long Delayed Happiness:

 Moved by an unknown impulse, so difficult to explain the Baroness made her way to the narrow cheerless room where Amalie lay watching the hours of the dying year slip by.

The window stood open, so the mistress rushed to close it. With an air of command in her all too feeble voice, the ailing governess told her to leave it open and let her listen to her family’s death music, which the wolves had come to sing her.

She felt lonely no more as now she was once again one of a great family. There was a long delayed happiness on her face.

The cry of the wolves rose on the still winter air and floated round the castle wall. Not for a lot of money could the Death music of the howling wolves be bought anywhere.

The Crash of the Tree in the Castle Park:

The Baroness rejoined her guests and wanted to send for a doctor for the dying woman when another sound came.

It was the noise of a tree, splitting & falling in the park with a crash. At the same time Amelia died.

The Rational Explanation: 

There was a moment of silence. Then the banker’s wife, a friend in the house, said that this winter’s frost, the sharpest for many years, was responsible for the strange events.

It was the intense cold that brought the wolves. It was the intense cold that split the tree. Again it was the intense cold of the open window that made the doctors attention unnecessary for the old Franklin.

The Baroness readily agreed with her.

Obituary Notice: 

But the obituary notice in the newspaper looked very well. “On 29th December, at Castle Cernogratz, Amelia Von Cernogratz for many years the valued friend of Baron and Baroness Gruebel”.

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My Bank Account

My Bank Account

Pakistan Online Tuition – Al-Saudia Virtual Academy, Pakistan first and the largest online tutors Academy.

Provides free online english notes, english notes for Karachi and Federal Board.

XI year english notes Karachi Board are prepared by expert online english tutors.

My Bank Account


Stephen Leacock, the author of“My Bank Account”, was a respectable University Teacher and highly successful with his writing and was a writer of great repute, he excelled in the art of humor.

My Bank Account, alive with delicate touches of the same, is an example of short story of rare charm and beauty.

The Story:

The Irresponsible fool:

As certain man was ever much too afraid to go into a bank and was afraid of the desk, the clerks and even the money.

So afraid he was indeed, that he became an irresponsible fool the moment he to do any business there.

The Raise in Salary:

None-the-less, when his salary was raised to fifty dollars a month, he made up his mind to put all his savings in a bank which he felt was the only safe place for it.

He goes to a bank:

He, therefore, walked into a bank. Needless to say his steps were unsteadily and he looked at the clerks in fear.

A silly Idea:

More ever, he had a silly idea that he must talk to the manager before he opened an account in the bank. He felt it was all too necessary.

The Accountant:

So he walked up to the accountant who was a tall, cool devil. In a voice, which sounded as if it came from the grave, he asked him, if he could see the manager ‘a lone’.

The Manager:

The accountant brought the manager.

A calm, serious man, he looked at the newcomer with some anxiety, for he thought he was detective with a terrible secret to tell or else a rich man with a large account to open.

To be sure, he took him into a private room and turned the key in the lock.

This made him worse so that he hardly found voice to speak. However, it was soon known that he was neither a detective nor a rich man.

The manager relieved but grew indifferent. In a cool cruel voice, he told him to go to the accountant. Nervous as never before, he walked into the big iron door of the safe.

The manager called him out and showed him the way.

The Account is opened: 

Back to the accountant, he threw the 56 dollars; he had pressed together in a ball in his pocket, at him with a quick sudden movement, asking him to place it in the bank.

At last the account was opened. All this had been too much for him. His face turned terribly pale.

His voice was hollow and shaking no longer himself, he felt the bank swing before his eyes.

Another Silly Idea:

Another silly idea, then, came into his mind. He wished to draw out six dollars for present use, and asked for a cheque. But instead of writing 6 dollars, he wrote 56 on it.

And the mischief was done. The people of the bank were surprised and stopped writing to look at him.

One of them asked if he would draw it all out again. Not before long, he realized his mistake. At his wit’s end to reason any more, he felt it was impossible to explain.

So he grew bold and careless in his misery declared that he wanted the whole thing back to the last cent.

The Account is closed:

Astonished, they paid back all the money in denomination indicated by the strange customer.

No sooner did he get the money, and then he rushed out of the bank.

A roar of laughter went the air as the big door swung behind him.

Savings in a Sock:

Since then he uses a bank no more. Instead, he keeps his money in his pocket and his savings in silver dollars in a sock.

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Science and Scientist

Science and Scientists

Science and Scientist is a important chapter of XI English Text Book for Karachi Board.

Reference to context:


‘Science and Scientists’ is a short essay. F. Sherwood Taylor writes it. It is taken from ‘The World of Science’.


The writer gives (a) definitions of Science and (b) the cause of the growth of Science.

Definition of Science:

Man in the Street: Definition of Science, Meaning of the word ‘Science’.

  • The man in the street (or the layman) knows the meaning of the word science fairly well. Of course, he knows it only in his own simple way. He thinks that:
  • Astronomy, Chemistry, Biology etc are definitely science.
  • Engineering of medicine may or may not be science and
  • Politics, History, Art, Religion etc are definitely not science.

This clearly shows that the ‘man in the street’ has a very vague idea about science. In fact, he does not know even its rudiments, much less its niceties.

A Scientist Definition of Science:

A scientist defines science as that which has the following characteristics in its outlook:


i.e. is an exact (or accurate) as possible.


i.e. has a methodical arrangement.

Sound Evidence: i.e. is based on and supported by solid proofs. It does not jump to conclusions (or draw hasty inference without waiting for necessary proofs).

Truth: i.e. aims at finding out only the truth and nothing at all being influenced by personal views – for or against or personal prejudices – likes or dislikes.

Anything, say a piece of work or a book which has these qualities is “Scientific’ otherwise it is ‘unscientific’. Needless to say, a science is so busy with his experiments that he has hardly any time for definitions.

Simple Definition of Science:

Simply stated, science is a big collection of (1) facts and (2) Laws, which explain the relationship between these facts.

The most essential characteristics of the Facts of Science and the laws of Science are that

(1) these are stated in a language, which has a quite clear meaning so that no doubts arise in the mind.

(2) Their truth can always be verified by scientific experiments.

Importance of the Definitions:

  • These definitions may not sound interesting. Never the less, they are quite important for they bring to light the essential factor that is responsible for the phenomenal progress of science.
  • That essential factor is the scientific attitude of mind.


Science made little progress so long as people had an unscientific attitude of mind i.e. people searched knowledge in a random careless way, readily believing what other said.

The statements were never put to test.

But science made astonishing progress when people acquired the scientific attitude of mind – i.e. people tested stated facts through experiments.

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